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Country studies India and China available

The country studies India and China are know available!

You find the studies here:

China: The experiences of China’s agricultural extension system in reaching a large number of farmers with rural advisory services India RAS system 2015

India: The experiences of India’s agricultural extension system in reaching a large number of farmers with rural advisory services


Studies “Capitalisation of Experiences” available

The “Capitalisation of Experiences” studies are know available!

You find the studies here:

– Capitalisation of Experiences – Laos Extension for Agriculture Project (LEAP):  CAPEX RAS LEAP

– Capitalisation of Experiences – Kyrgyz Swiss Agricultural Project (KSAP): CAPEX RAS KSAP

– Capitalisation of Experiences – Public Services for Agriculture and Rural Development Project Vietnam (PS-ARD): CAPEX RAS PS-ARD

– Capitalisation of Experiences – Sustainable Soil Management Programme (SSMP) Nepal: CAPEX RAS_SSMP

– Capitalisation of Experiences in Samriddhi Private Rural Service Provision System Bangladesh: CAPEX RAS Samriddhi

Key messages Open Space discussions

See the key messages from the discussions in the Open Space.

These topics were discussed in the different groups during the open space on Thursday afternoon:

  • RAS & Market (Demand & Supply) / „How to bring innovation in the RAS to have consistent demand“
  • Capacity enhancement of service provider to meet the demand
  • Gender and RAS, Women and social groups responsive RAS
  • How to support coordination of an effective pluralistic RAS system?
  • Quality assurance of RAS
  • Cost-benefit analysis of RAS
  • Roles of local state and government agencies in institutionalizing RAS and sustainability
  • Private sector, effective collaboration between private and public sector and civil society for inclusive and pluralistic RAS
  • Strengthening “Demand side” interventions / Strengthening “voice” of farmers in RAS planning and implementation
  • How do RAS systems support to apply policies in to actions?
  • Research – Extension Linkage (How? Participatory vs non-participatory)

Panel discussion: How to reach the millions?


Panel discussion

Panel discussion


Kristin Davis (GFRAS), Rasheed Sulaiman (AESA, India), Xiangping Jia (Northwest Agriculture & Forest University, China)

See the key messages and conclusions, written by participants:

Key messages written by Andrea Siclari, SDC Switzerland:

1. How exactly do your systems in your countries reach the millions of smallholders?

In both India and China the RAS set-up is complex with some elements decentralized while others are kept at central level. India has only kept an advisory function at central level, while RAS is implemented by the states autonomously. The establishment of Farmer’s Organizations (FO) has been the key to reach the Millions in India. In China, the preconditions for an effective RAS system to reach out to large numbers of farmers have been land tenure security and access to market. Once these conditions were fulfilled RAS has enabled itself with a outreach capacities of the private sector.

2. What innovative strategies of India and China were presented regarding agricultural knowledge and innovation systems?

Again India has put in place a mechanism involving farmers in RAS and its shaping while in China farmers are not involved. In India FOs seem to be the answer to knowledge management, although their capacity remains very weak. This weakness is also recognized by GFRAS at a global level, but once strengthened the FOs can represent the link between farmers and research. In China the only recently established FOs are mainly used by input providers for distribution and for the government to access farmers. The panel agrees on the fact that the mandate of the extensionists has to be broadened. China sees a big potential in ICT to improve RAS knowledge transfer.

3. How is the private sector contributing to RAS?

Private sector is seen as a complement to public RAS, however implementation of the policies has proven a challenge. In China a conflict between public and private interest is evident, especially regarding environmental protection. The government needs to provide the regulatory framework and enforce a balance between these interests.  A possible solution is the Indian example of input dealers being trained by government schools. Another issue raised is the importance of large companies and the neglect of SME.

Key messages and conclusion written by Philaiphone Vongpraseuth, SDC Laos

  • Capacity of all actors
  • Ecological goals
  • Coordination of all actors to be strengthened
  • Farmers are the key group for RAS effectiveness evaluation
  • Dissemination of knowledge
  • Linking farmers to research
  • RAS is the key to bring all actors into one platform

Conclusion written by Antonio Dionico, AMMANI Philippines and his team

  • Farmer organizations can be important players in the RAS system, but they are not all the same and their capacities are often limited. The private sector can also play a major role but their profit and business objective have to be tempered.



Input: Learnings from SDC projects

Have a look at the presentation about “Learnings from SDC projects” (by Stefanie Kaegi)

Discussion points after the presentation (by Renate Lefroy, SDC Switzerland):

  • Why did demand side support not lead to beeter effectiveness or higher sustainability?
  • Where are the possible traps of demand-side financing?
  • You need pre-existing farmer organisations NOT create new groups for the purpose of increasing demand-side
  • Why does upscaling of participatory approaches lead to weakening of participative approaches?
  • Training without institutionalization of the training content is not effective
  • Research framework is very production-oriented: Dilemma between expectations and definitions
  • What is the consequence of reluctance of governments to finance RAS, if donors do it already?
  • Why should demand and supply side interventions be independent from each other?